Last updated on January 1st, 2022 at 10:42 am
Greek Mythology is familiar to most people on Earth, it wasn’t the oldest but undoubtedly is the most famous and the richest of all.
It is not just a bunch of myths or true stories, but the very psychology of humanity, it expresses the way of thinking of the people 50 centuries ago.
And it is still alive today since it still expresses the expectations and wishes of the human soul, that is why it has inspired art, painting, and today’s culture. And it will remain alive as long as humanity exists.
In 5000 CE, after 3000 years, if humanity still talks about myths or ancient events, these will definitely be from Greek mythology.
- 1. Ancient Myths and The Hellenic(Greek) Mythology
- 2. Greek Mythology and the Gods
The 12 Olympian Gods – The Greek Pantheon
- 3.1. 1- Dias or Zeus (Jupiter in Roman)
- 3.2. 2- Poseidon (Neptune in Roman)
- 3.3. 3- Hermes (Mercury in Roman)
- 3.4. 4- Hera (Juno in Roman)
- 3.5. 5- Hades (Pluto in Roman)
- 3.6. 6- Dionysos (Bacchus in Roman)
- 3.7. 7- Demeter (Ceres in Roman)
- 3.8. 8- Apollo
- 3.9. 9- Ares (Mars in Roman)
- 3.10. 10- Artemis (Diana in Roman)
- 3.11. 11- Athena (Minerva in Roman)
- 3.12. 12- Aphrodite (Venus in Roman)
- 3.13. 13- Hephaestos (Vulcan in Roman)
- 3.14. 14- Hestia (Roman Vesta)
- 4. Minor Gods and other Deities
- 5. Greek Cosmogony
- 6. Conclusion
Ancient Myths and The Hellenic(Greek) Mythology
Stories of Greek mythology are deeply human, with gods, humans, heroes, semi-gods, good and bad monsters.
All Greek gods are full of passions, defects, and human weaknesses. Greek Mythology has nothing to do with any religion since it interprets everything with humans and not God at its center.
Hellas was and still is one of the most beautiful countries in the world. The Hellenes have a long history and an endless culture that created and shaped almost everything that we know today. That is why Hellas is considered the cradle of the so-called western civilization.
Α diverse land shaped by the wild fury of nature and the intense geological activity that is constantly still changing it. That’s why you can find some unbelievable landscapes making you feel they are out of this world, and thousands of islands with distinct characteristics that don’t exist elsewhere.
Only a land of this variety and beauty can inspire its people to imagine and create such fantastic stories!
Greek Mythology and the Gods
Greek mythology is the source of most myths borrowed later by monotheistic religions and adapted to every monotheistic religion’s purposes.
The myth of the flood of Deucalion was borrowed by the Jews to construct the tale of the flood of Noah. The God Sun also borrowed to form their God.
In the traditions of the peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean, India, Mesopotamia, Scandinavia, and Central America, there are at least two dozen Gods who experienced the drama of death and redemption of the resurrection. Long before the birth of Jesus Christ.
Osiris, Dionysos, Adonis, Odin of the Vikings, Ganesha and Krishna in India, Leminkaiken, Tamuz, Quetzalcoatl of the Aztecs, Mithras, and dozens of others were killed and resurrected. So say the mythologies and the same says the Bible about Jesus Christ.
But one of the biggest legacies of Greek Mythology is the huge pool of tales that inspire until today. Science still draws names from mythology’s endless names list to name newly discovered planets and other space objects.
The 12 Olympian Gods – The Greek Pantheon
Olympos mountain is in Thessaly, a region north of Thermopylae, and it is the highest mountain in Greece. It was the home of the 12 ruling Gods.
These are the 12 most important gods of the Greek pantheon, the 12 Olympian gods which actually were the following 14!
Note: Hephaestos wasn’t a permanent Olympos resident and Hestia gave up her Olympian throne in favor of Dionysos. God’s tricks!
1- Dias or Zeus (Jupiter in Roman)
The father and leader of the Greek pantheon. He was the son of the Titan Cronos (Saturn in Roman) and Rhea, daughter of the Gaia(Earth). He overthrew his father, Cronos, king of the Titans, and became the leader of the Gods comprising mostly of his siblings and children. His wife was Hera known for her jealousy, as Dias was always unfaithful to her.
He could control the thunder and used it as a powerful weapon.
2- Poseidon (Neptune in Roman)
The God of the sea, horses, and earthquakes. He had the trident as a weapon and many strange or monster-like children. Among them were the flying horse Pegasos and the one-eye Cyclop Polyphemos.
3- Hermes (Mercury in Roman)
The winged messenger of the Gods, but he was also involved in many spheres. He was the protector of animals and associated with fertility, music, luck, and deception.
4- Hera (Juno in Roman)
The queen goddess, sister, and wife to Dias. She was almost always jealous and not without a reason.
5- Hades (Pluto in Roman)
The lord of the underworld or the world of the dead. Husband of Persephone. Ηe had to give Persephone magic pomegranate seeds so she could manage to stay with him for a part of the year.
6- Dionysos (Bacchus in Roman)
Son of Zeus born to a mortal woman. Zeus accidentally killed his mother before Dionysos was born. In order to save his son Zeus sewed the young infant into his thigh and, when the young Dionysos emerged, passed him to the care of the Maenads. Dionysos is symbolized by a bull and he is the God of sex, celebrations, and wine.
7- Demeter (Ceres in Roman)
Demeter, the Goddess of agriculture, was the mother of Persephone who was the wife of Hades. Demeter is related to the Eleusinian Mysteries, the most important religious rites in ancient Greece.
Brother of Artemis, Son of Zeus. He is the God of music, light, protector of the arts, and divination.
9- Ares (Mars in Roman)
Ares is the Greek god of war and the son of Zeus and Hera.
10- Artemis (Diana in Roman)
Artemis is one of the oldest, most complex, and most interesting forms of the Greek pantheon. Daughter of Zeus and Leto. She was the twin sister of Apollo, queen of mountains and forests, goddess of hunting, protector of children and animals.
11- Athena (Minerva in Roman)
Athena was the goddess of wisdom, the olive trees, strategy, and war.
She was the beloved daughter of Zeus. Her mother was Metis, the first wife of Zeus.
Zeus after a prophecy learned that Metis would give birth to a child who would overthrow his father, so he swallowed Metis while she was pregnant in Athena.
Later, Zeus began to suffer from headaches and called on Hephaestos for help. So Hephaestos hit the head of Zeus with a big hammer and Athena came out from Zeus’s head in armor, wearing helmets and holding a shield.
12- Aphrodite (Venus in Roman)
Aphrodite was an old deity born before Zeus, she is the goddess of love, beauty, sexuality, pleasure, and childbearing.
According to Hesiod, in his Theogony, Aphrodite was born from the foam of the sea when Cronos cut off the genitals of Uranos (his father) and threw them into the sea. The foam was pushed by Zephyros to the coast of Cyprus, so Aphrodite came out of the sea naked on the shores of Paphos.
Hence her name is from the word foam meaning Aphros in Greek and the verb anadiomai which means appear or emerge. Literally means: Emerged from the foam (of the sea).
There are more tales about the birth and later life of Aphrodite, many of them contradictory.
13- Hephaestos (Vulcan in Roman)
God of fire and a great metalworker. He was the son of Zeus and Hera. Despite his ugliness and deformation, he married Aphrodite who frequently cheated on him with her lover Ares, the god of war.
He could visit Olympos, but he didn’t live there, most of the time he stayed at home, the island of Lemnos where he had his workshop.
14- Hestia (Roman Vesta)
She was the goddess of the house, fireside, and family, she gave up her Olympian throne to Dionysos.
Minor Gods and other Deities
Greek Gods and Goddesses are countless. Ancient Greeks had deities for every natural phenomenon, like rain, night, moon, trees, lakes, rivers, mountains, sea, storms, thunder, love, hate, fear, passion, betrayal, jealousy, literally anything you can think of. The tales behind these deities are thousands as ancient Greeks saw their Gods with all kinds of human defects, human weaknesses, and passions.
We are not going to mention every deity, every monster, every human-form monster, or a human-animal hybrid of Greek mythology here, because they are countless, but keep an eye on our site as we will publish soon more fascinating stories with tales from Greek mythology.
We, the Hellenes, have our Cosmogony, which is part of Hellenic(Greek) mythology.
Every ancient religion has a kind of Cosmogony. The Greek cosmogony was an epic poem written by Hesiodos (Hesiod) quite rich in stories, with wars between Gods and Titans, most of them really funny and naive.
These tales were passed from generation to generation and skewed from mouth to mouth.
Hesiod was an epic poet like Homer. He collected all the tales and wrote the Cosmogony around 700 BCE as an epic poem. Long after the two epic poems of Homer who wrote Iliad and Odyssey around 762 BCE, and long after the Trojan war.
Hesiod tried to collect all the myths that circulated in Greece regarding the creation of the world. Ηe also tried to decipher the genealogical tree of the gods out of these myths.
Order out of Chaos – The Primordial Gods
In the beginning, there were only three autogenous elements, Chaos, Gaia (Earth), and Eros.
Eros does not give birth to any offspring himself but unites the other two elements and helps them to give birth to their offspring.
So, from Chaos that is a deity without sex, Erebos and Night were born, which in turn gave birth to Etheras and Hemera(Day).
Gaia(Mother Earth) gives birth without fertilization to Uranos, Pontos, and the Mountains. In essence, Gaia creates the world and the Universe by creating its characteristics.
From the unification of Gaia(Earth) with Uranos, the Titans were born, the most important titans being Cronos(Saturn in Roman), Koios, Kreios, Hyperion, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, and Tethys.
At the same time, the Cyclops and the Hundred-hands creatures were born.
The Titanomachy between the Titans and Gods
Cronos, the strongest and the leader of Titans defeats his father Uranos and takes over his power, he cuts his father’s genitals and throws them into the sea near the coast of Cyprus island. From the sperm inside them, Aphrodite was born and came out of the sea naked.
From the blood of Uranus also the Erinyes, the Giants, and the Melies were born.
After the battle, Cronos takes his sister Rhea as his wife.
But the defeated Uranos had prophesied that his son Cronos would also be defeated by one of his children.
Cronos trying to eliminate the danger decides to eat his children, in fact, to swallow them alive.
So Rhea continuously gives birth and Cronos swallows his children one after another. Dimitra(Demeter), Hestia, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon were all eaten by their father Cronos.
When the 6th child Dias or Zeus(Jupiter in Roman) was born, Rhea hid the baby in a cave on Mount Dikti in Crete and gave Cronos a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes to swallow.
Dias or Zeus grows up with the help of the Nymphs who raised the newborn feeding him with the milk of a goat.
Soon he became strong enough to challenge his father and force him to take his brothers out of his womb.
Thus he formed the group of gods led by him that comes into war with the group of the Titans of Cronos. That was the first War of the Titans, the Great Titanomachy that lasted 10 years.
The Gods of Zeus prevailed, and the defeated Titans were exiled in Tartara(Tartarus in Roman), a dark and miserable place very far away from the Earth.
Gods had to face another challenge though, the Giants.
There was another war, the Gigantomachy that lasted equally long.
Finally, the gods beat them all and settled on the top of Olympos mountain from where they ruled the world.
Greek mythology, without a doubt, is the richest of all with the most tales and myths by far. There is no natural thing in this world without a deity behind it. The ancient Greeks left absolutely nothing without a mythological explanation.
The tales are so many that if someone wants to gather them all in books it needs a lifetime to do it.
See some of the nicest Greek myths here. It’s really worth reading some of these beautiful stories as Love, Passion, Terror, Sins, Life, and Death, the unexpected, betrayal, self-sacrifice, remorse, happiness, misery are all included!